2024 WAEC Literature (Drama & Poetry) Questions and Answers

2024 WAEC Literature in English Exam Questions and Answers (Prose, Drama, and Poetry): A Study Resource for 2024 WASSCE School Candidates. Access free WAEC May/June English Literature (Prose, Objective, Drama, and Poetry) Questions and Answers to aid your studies and prepare for the exam. This resource is intended to assist school candidates preparing for the WAEC May/June Literature in English exam in May 2024.

Friday, 24th May 2024

Literature-In-English 3(Drama & Poetry) 3:30pm – 6:00pm




In the play “Let me Die Alone” by John K. KaraBo, the deaths of Gbanya and Yoko are significant events that contribute to the overall plot and themes of the play. In other words Here is the key points of an account of their deaths:

Gbanya’s Death:
-Gbanya’s death can be accounted for as a result of his involvement in a tragic accident, It is revealed that Gbanya, while attempting to escape from a dangerous situation, falls from a high platform and suffers a fatal injury.
-Gbanya, the protagonist, dies at the end of the play due to a combination of physical and emotional exhaustion.
-His death is a result of his inner turmoil, guilt, and the consequences of his actions.
-Gbanya’s refusal to accept responsibility for his mistakes and his stubbornness ultimately lead to his downfall.
-His death serves as a symbol of the destruction of the old order and the need for change and renewal.

Yoko’s Death:
On the other hand
-Yoko’s death can be attributed to her deteriorating health condition. Throughout the play, Yoko’s character is depicted as someone who is battling a terminal illness. Her death, therefore, can be seen as a natural progression of her illness and serves as a poignant reminder of the fragility of life and the inevitability of death.
-Yoko, Gbanya’s wife, dies earlier in the play due to a broken heart and despair.
-Her death is a direct result of Gbanya’s betrayal and abandonment of her and their people.
-Yoko’s death serves as a catalyst for Gbanya’s downfall, as he is haunted by her ghost and the guilt of his actions.
-Her death represents the destruction of innocence and the consequences of Gbanya’s selfish desires.

The deaths of Gbanya and Yoko are tragic and poignant moments in the play, highlighting the consequences of human actions and the need for accountability and redemption.


The deaths of Yoko and Gbanya serve as turning points in the African drama “Let Me Die Alone,” capturing the themes of sacrifice, betrayal, and power. The political unrest of their era and their personal hardships are intricately linked to these occurrences.
The tragic heroine of the play and a historical character, Yoko, is overtaken by the stress and unrest in Moyamba. She believes that death is the only way to bring about peace because she feels degraded and unable to be in charge. She poisons herself because of this overwhelming sense of hopelessness. Yoko expresses her desire for peace in her last speech by stating,“If I’m to die, then let me die alone… and now I will know peace. Now I will never be used again. Gbanya, make way, Yoko is coming in search of peace.” Her statements express her deep disappointment and wish to be freed from the responsibilities of leadership.
Through his unfulfilled promises and political gaffes, Gbanya, the chief of Senehun and Yoko’s husband, plays a pivotal role in the tragedy that is developing. Despite his original pledge to give Yoko the chiefdom, he later backtracks, citing the unstable political climate and threats from outside foes. Yoko becomes more depressed as a result of this betrayal. When Gbanya considers the evolving situation, it is clear that he has broken his word: “Remember you made a promise a long time ago that at the time of your death the chiefdom passes into my hands.” Yoko’s last, fatal decision is sparked by his indecisiveness and the eventual poisoning by Lamboi and Musa, who plot to keep Yoko from becoming powerful.
Yoko is a caring leader because of her empathy and acute awareness of the suffering of her people, but these traits also leave her susceptible to the extreme stress and emotional toll that come with being in a position of authority. She comes to the conclusion that the only way to achieve peace is to end her own life since the incessant pressures grow intolerable. Her final act of self-poisoning demonstrates her determination to carry the weight by herself. In her final moments, she declares, “I have savored the fruits of power alone… let me die alone… and now I will know peace,” underscoring her isolation and the weight of her sacrifices.
Their lives are made more difficult by outside influences and political intrigue. The British colonial influence weakens Gbanya’s rule, especially through Governor Samuel Rowe’s humiliation of him in front of his people. This public humiliation foreshadows the instability that ultimately results in their murders and represents the deterioration of established authority. The terrible disintegration of Lamboi and Musa’s life is exacerbated by their plot to poison Gbanya in order to keep Yoko from seizing control.
The pinnacle of Yoko’s intense feelings of loss, betrayal, and desire for peace was her ultimate act of poisoning herself. Her last words, “I… did not bring a child into this world. So let no one mourn my death. Tell the entire Chiefdom, none should mourn my death,” which emphasize her loneliness and the extent of her sacrifices. Her self-imposed seclusion in death highlights the tragic aspects of her personality and her search for tranquility.



Foreshadowing is a powerful literary device that adds depth, suspense, and anticipation to storytelling. In the play about Madam Yoko, foreshadowing is expertly used to hint at future events and outcomes, allowing the audience to anticipate key developments and their consequences. Through subtle clues and hints scattered throughout the narrative, the playwright effectively creates a sense of foreboding and tension, enriching the dramatic experience for the audience.
One prominent use of foreshadowing in the play is evident in Gbanya’s promise to pass power over to Yoko upon his death. This initial promise sets the stage for the power struggle that unfolds after Gbanya’s demise. As the audience witnesses Gbanya’s determination to uphold his promise and Yoko’s eagerness to assume leadership, they are subtly foreshadowed about the potential conflict and turmoil that will arise regarding Yoko’s succession to power.
The impending danger of Gbanya’s death is foreshadowed through various ominous signs and events. The arrival of the messenger with the Governor’s message and the subsequent accusations against Gbanya hint at the events that lead to his downfall. Gbanya’s insistence on Yoko inheriting the chiefdom further reinforces the audience’s anticipation of the turmoil that will follow his passing, setting the stage for the tragic events that unfold.
Lamboi’s treachery and plot to kill Gbanya with poison are also foreshadowed through secretive conversations and hesitant actions. The audience senses the impending danger as Lamboi’s true intentions become clear, creating a palpable sense of foreboding and suspense. The tension builds as the plot unfolds, leading to the inevitable tragedy that befalls Gbanya and sets the stage for further conflict and turmoil within the kingdom.
As Yoko assumes the role of chief after Gbanya’s death, the challenges she faces are foreshadowed through ongoing interference from the Governor and conspiracies orchestrated by Lamboi and Musa. The audience anticipates the struggles Yoko will encounter in maintaining her reign and protecting her people, heightening the tension and suspense as the narrative progresses.
Ultimately, Yoko’s decision to commit suicide serves as the climax of the play and is foreshadowed by her mounting despair and disillusionment. The Governor’s betrayal and the betrayal of her own people serve as the final catalysts for her tragic end. Through Yoko’s declaration of finding peace in death and the absence of mourning for her departure, the audience is foreshadowed about her ultimate fate, bringing the narrative full circle and leaving a lasting impact on the audience.



The playwright makes use of some dramatic irony. Dramatic irony refers to the audience’s knowledge of something that the character who is speaking does not know. When the character makes an innocent remark action that refers to the “inside knowledge” that the audience has the character does not have, contains dramatic irony. For example, dramatic irony is seen when Sidi goes to the Bale’s palace to mock and taunt his impotence.
The audience is very much aware that Baroka’s much-publicized impotence is just a ploy to have Sidi to himself and woo her for marriage. It is also ironic that Sadiku, the head wife has also dragged into the trick and manipulation also. When Sidi makes up her mind to honor Baroka’s visit which she earlier turns down, the audience and the Bale himself are pretty aware that she will become the object of Baroka’s expensive joke when he eventually wins.
Another instance of dramatic irony is evident in the scene when Lakunle expects Sidi to be back from Bale’s palace. He is very much tensed and anxious to have her back. The audience is aware that Sidi has fallen victim to Baroka’s fake impotence. Also, the women are busy making sarcastic and sneering comments about the Bale’s supposed impotence while Baroka is busy exercising his manliness on Sidi in the palace.
There is also an instance of situational irony in the play. Situation irony is a situation in which actions that are opposite occurring that are not intended and the outcome is contrary to what is expected. For instance, it is ironic that the old Baroka, a man who does not want the railway to be built through llunjunle and consequently bribes the surveyor to stop the project, decides he must embrace modernity by having a stamp machine that would print Sidi’s images, given that his images are poorly treated as they are placed next to the latrine in the magazines.



In Wole Soyinka’s play “The Lion and the Jewel,” Kunle, also known as Lakunle, represents a modern and Westernized perspective that is often at odds with traditional values embodied by characters like Baroka. Lakunle’s attitudes towards Baroka, the village chief, are generally critical and dismissive. He views Baroka as a symbol of the outdated traditions and practices that he believes are holding the village back from progress and modernization.

Lakunle often mocks and derides Baroka’s ways, seeing them as primitive and backward. He is especially critical of Baroka’s polygamous lifestyle and his manipulation of others to maintain power. For Lakunle, Baroka represents everything he wants to change about the village—resistance to change, adherence to old customs, and the subjugation of women.

However, Lakunle’s criticisms also reveal his own shortcomings and misunderstandings. His disdain for Baroka sometimes comes off as arrogance and a lack of respect for the cultural context and the values that the village holds dear. While Lakunle’s desire for progress and education is commendable, his approach is often insensitive and dismissive of the very people he claims to want to help.

In contrast, Baroka is shown to be more complex and cunning than Lakunle gives him credit for. Despite his adherence to tradition, Baroka is also capable of strategic thinking and adaptation, as seen in his interactions with Sidi and his ultimate triumph over Lakunle. This complexity challenges Lakunle’s simplistic view of progress and tradition, highlighting the nuanced reality of cultural change and the persistence of traditional authority.

Overall, Lakunle’s attitudes towards Baroka highlight the tension between modernity and tradition, and through their interactions, Soyinka explores the complexities and contradictions inherent in the process of cultural change.



The play is full with the sharp resonances of sarcasm, which may be used in a variety of ways to analyze the inner conflicts, interpersonal relationships, and social criticisms of the characters. Osborne’s deft use of irony makes the play a moving examination of post-war disillusionment, class conflict, and the intricacies of interpersonal relationships.
Jimmy Porter, the play’s main character, is a master of cutting wit and stinging sarcasm who uses them as both armor and a weapon in his constant fight against what he perceives to be societal injustices. Jimmy is full of caustic jabs, aimed not only at larger society structures but also at his closest confidants, Cliff and Alison. His harsh comments directed at his wife Alison and his buddy Cliff, who is a member of the working class, show a deep-seated annoyance with their perceived shortcomings and the limitations imposed by their different social classes. Jimmy expresses his dissatisfaction with the current situation through sarcasm, utilizing comedy as a front for his underlying hurt and insecurity.
Alison and Cliff, on the other hand, use sarcasm to establish their agency and defend themselves in their turbulent interactions with Jimmy. After being presented as timid and obedient at first, Alison eventually learns to use sarcasm as a tactic to question Jimmy’s authority and claim her own independence. Her sardonic responses demonstrate her growing disenchantment with their marriage and with society in general, acting as a subliminal protest against Jimmy’s controlling actions.
In addition, the play uses sarcasm as a kind of conflict resolution, letting individuals work through their complicated relationships without coming to blows with one another. Characters use caustic exchanges to air concerns and make their viewpoints known, rather than having open conversations. This deceptive method of resolving disputes highlights the individuals’ underlying fears and the brittleness of their relationships with one another.
Sarcasm is a powerful tool for social commentary that extends beyond personal relationships. It may be used to provide biting criticism of the class divide and social mores that characterized post-war England. Osborne examines the discrepancy between society aspirations and life reality by exposing the absurdity and hypocrisy present in the strict social order through sardonic discourse. The characters’ unhappiness with the ossified institutions of privilege and class is expressed via sarcasm, which satisfies their need for change and disruption.
In the end, the characters use sarcasm as a coping strategy to help them work through the difficulties in their life when things are chaotic and unclear. Characters regain some agency and empowerment through sardonic conversation, giving them a feeling of control in an otherwise hopeless and disillusioned environment.



Cliff’s treatment of Alison stands in stark contrast to that of Jimmy. As a gentle and empathetic individual, Cliff represents a more compassionate and understanding presence in Alison’s life, providing her with emotional support and protection against Jimmy’s abrasive behavior.
Firstly, Cliff’s gentle demeanor and genuine fondness for Alison highlight his role as a comforting figure. Unlike Jimmy, who often exhibits fire, wit, and a bullying attitude, Cliff lacks any form of cruelty or verbal abuse. He appreciates Alison’s efforts in housekeeping and openly expresses his gratitude, creating a stark contrast to Jimmy’s harshness. This appreciation is evident in the way Cliff personally bandages Alison’s arm after she gets burnt, showcasing his caring nature and attentiveness to her well-being.
Cliff’s empathy and sensitivity further distinguish his character. He does not merely share in the problems of others but also seems to have an innate understanding of their feelings. Acting as a mediator between Jimmy and Alison, Cliff sacrifices his time and energy to try and maintain harmony in their tumultuous relationship. When Helena expresses her disdain for Jimmy, Cliff perceptively suggests that she might actually harbor deeper feelings for him. He is also the only person who senses Alison’s growing inclination to end her marriage, highlighting his intuitive understanding of her emotional state.
Moreover, Cliff’s relaxed and easy-going nature, combined with his self-taught intelligence, makes him a stabilizing force in the play. His affectionate relationship with Alison, while it has elements of sexual tension, remains rooted in a comfortable fondness rather than passionate desire. This platonic yet intimate bond provides Alison with a safe space amidst the chaos of her marriage. However, recognizing the need to pursue his own life, Cliff eventually decides to leave Jimmy’s apartment, demonstrating his desire for personal growth and independence.
Cliff’s good nature and supportive role make him a confidant for Alison. He is ever willing to offer his assistance and counsel, encouraging her to reconsider her decision to leave Jimmy. When Alison expresses her disillusionment with love, Cliff gently admonishes her, urging her not to give up on her relationship. His steadfast support underscores his commitment to Alison’s happiness and his belief in the possibility of reconciliation.



Friday serves as a significant day that brings to light various crucial aspects of the characters’ lives and their interactions, symbolizing both routine and turning points. The recurrence of Friday in the play underscores the cyclic nature of their struggles, aspirations, and confrontations. Through different events that transpire on Fridays, Wilson weaves a complex narrative that highlights the importance of this day in shaping the characters’ experiences and the overall story arc.
The play opens on a Friday in 1957, marking payday for Troy and Bono, two garbage collectors and close friends. This day symbolizes a moment of temporary relief from their labor-intensive work, allowing them to engage in their ritual of drinking and talking. The payday ritual not only cements the bond between Troy and Bono but also offers a glimpse into their shared struggles as working-class African American men. Their conversation reveals Troy’s courage and determination as he questions their boss, Mr. Rand, about the racial discrimination in their workplace. Troy’s desire for equal job opportunities reflects his broader struggle against systemic racism, making Friday a day of reflection and resistance.
Friday also serves as a catalyst for tension between Troy and his family. On this day, Troy’s son Cory discusses his aspirations to play college football, which Troy vehemently opposes. Troy’s refusal to support Cory’s dreams is rooted in his own experiences of racial discrimination in sports. His skepticism about Cory’s future in football exposes the generational conflict and differing perspectives on opportunity and success. This tension is further amplified when Troy informs Cory’s coach that Cory can no longer play, effectively shattering his son’s hopes. The significance of Friday in this context lies in its role as a day when personal and familial conflicts come to a head, forcing characters to confront their fears and desires.
The events of Friday also highlight Troy’s complex relationships with other characters. For instance, when Lyons, Troy’s eldest son from a previous marriage, visits to borrow money, it underscores the strained relationship between father and son. Lyons’ request for financial assistance on payday reveals his dependence on Troy, while also illustrating Troy’s conflicting emotions as a provider who resents yet supports his son’s musical aspirations. Moreover, Bono’s accusation of Troy’s infidelity, sparked by Troy buying a drink for another woman, further complicates his relationship with Rose, his wife. These interactions on Fridays expose the fragility of familial bonds and the underlying tensions that permeate their lives.
As the play progresses, Fridays continue to be pivotal. In Act One, Scene Four, which also occurs on a Friday, Troy celebrates his victory in becoming the first black garbage truck driver in the city. This achievement, while significant, is bittersweet as it comes amid ongoing familial discord. Cory’s anger towards Troy for sabotaging his football dreams resurfaces, leading to a confrontation that foreshadows deeper conflicts. Troy’s reflection on his past, his struggles, and his responsibilities as a father and husband all converge on this day, highlighting the duality of triumph and turmoil.
In the second act, the unraveling of Troy’s life is marked by significant events that also revolve around Fridays. Troy’s affair with Alberta and her subsequent pregnancy introduce a new layer of complexity to his relationships. When Alberta dies during childbirth, Troy is left to face the consequences of his actions. Rose’s decision to raise the baby, Raynell, while distancing herself emotionally from Troy, marks a turning point in their marriage. The culmination of these events on Fridays underscores the day’s role as a symbol of both routine and disruption, reflecting the ebb and flow of Troy’s life.



Friday is a pivotal day that highlights a number of important facets of the lives and relationships of the characters, signifying both everyday events and big moments. The play’s repeated mention of Friday highlights how cyclical their conflicts, goals, and problems are. Wilson creates a complicated narrative that emphasizes the significance of Fridays in forming the experiences of the characters and the overarching plot through a variety of Friday-related occurrences.
On a Friday in 1957, when the play starts, Troy and Bono—two close friends and garbage collectors—are getting paid. This day represents a little reprieve from their arduous work, enabling them to partake in their custom of drinking and conversing. Troy and Bono’s relationship is strengthened by the payday ritual, which also provides insight into their common challenges as working-class African American males. Troy confronts their manager, Mr. Rand, about racial prejudice at work, and their interaction demonstrates Troy’s bravery and tenacity. Friday is a day for introspection and resistance since Troy’s fight against systematic racism is reflected in his desire for equitable work chances.
Troy and his family’s conflict is exacerbated by Friday as well. Today, Cory, Troy’s son, talks about wanting to play college football, something Troy strongly disagrees with. Troy’s own encounters with racial prejudice in athletics are the reason behind his inability to endorse Cory’s goals. His doubts about Cory’s football career highlight the generational divide and divergent views on success and opportunity. When Troy tells Cory’s coach that he can no longer play, thereby dashing his son’s ambitions, the tension is increased even further. In this sense, Friday is significant because it represents a day when familial and personal tensions escalate, compelling people to face their wants and anxieties.
The Friday events also bring Troy’s nuanced connections with other characters to light. For example, the tense connection between father and son is shown when Lyons, Troy’s oldest son from a previous marriage, comes to borrow money. The fact that Lyons asks Troy for money on payday not only shows how dependent he is on him, but it also highlights Troy’s mixed feelings as a parent who both supports and resents his son’s desire to pursue music. Furthermore, Troy’s relationship with his wife Rose is made more difficult by Bono’s charge of his adultery, which was prompted by Troy purchasing a drink for a different lady. These Friday conversations reveal the underlying tensions that underlie their lives and the brittleness of familial connections.
The play goes on to show how important Fridays are. Troy celebrates becoming the first black garbage truck driver in the city in Act One, Scene Four, which also takes place on a Friday. Even though this accomplishment is noteworthy, there is still continuous family strife, so it is bittersweet. When Cory confronts Troy, it foreshadows deeper issues as his resentment for ruining his football ambitions reappears. This day highlights the dichotomy of accomplishment and agony as Troy considers his background, his hardships, and his duties as a husband and parent.
Troy’s life begins to fall apart in the second act, with major incidents that likewise center around Fridays. Troy’s relationships become more difficult as a result of his romance with Alberta and her eventual pregnancy. Troy is forced to deal with the fallout from his actions when Alberta passes away during delivery. A turning point in Rose and Troy’s marriage was her decision to raise Raynell while emotionally separating herself from him. The fact that these occurrences culminate on Fridays highlights the significance of the day as a representation of both disruption and regularity, which reflects Troy’s life’s ups and downs.



In the short story “A Government Service Driver on His Retirement” by Ken Saro-Wiwa, the government driver’s reward upon retirement and death is a complex issue. Here are key points of some arguments for and against:

Arguments for:
-Dedication and loyalty: The driver has served the government faithfully for 35 years, deserving recognition and reward for his dedication and loyalty.
-Hard work and commitment: He has worked tirelessly, often under challenging conditions, and has been committed to his duties.
-Entitlement: After decades of service, he has earned his pension and other retirement benefits as a matter of right.
-Dedication and loyalty
-Hard work and commitment

Arguments against:
-Corruption and complicity: The driver has been complicit in the corrupt activities of his bosses, profiting from their wrongdoing and turning a blind eye to their abuses of power.
-Moral culpability: By supporting and enabling corrupt officials, he shares some responsibility for their misdeeds and the harm caused to others.
-Unworthy of reward: Given his complicity in corruption, some might argue that he does not deserve a reward or praise for his service.
-Corruption and complicity
-Moral culpability
-Unworthy of reward

Ultimately, whether the government driver deserves a reward is a matter of moral judgment, considering both his dedication and loyalty, as well as his complicity in corruption. The story highlights the complexities of accountability and moral responsibility in a corrupt system.



The story “The Leader and the Led” by Chinua Achebe, presents a critique of authoritarian leadership and explores the theme of resistance to oppressive leadership styles.
The rejection of the lion’s leadership qualities may symbolize the rejection of autocratic, domineering, or self-serving leadership traits. It could also reflect the desire for more inclusive, fair, and participatory forms of leadership within the animal community. Here are the key points they include:
-Autocracy: The lion’s dictatorial and oppressive rule, making decisions without consulting others.
-Selfishness: The lion’s prioritization of his own interests and needs over the well-being of the other animals.
-Injustice: The lion’s unfair treatment of others, using his power to exploit and oppress.
-Arrogance: The lion’s pride and arrogance, believing himself to be superior to others.
-Lack of empathy: The lion’s failure to understand and consider the perspectives and needs of the other animals.

The animals reject these qualities, seeking a more inclusive, fair, and compassionate leadership that values the well-being of all.



D.H. Lawrence explores the poet’s deep-seated aversion to bats while highlighting the varied perceptions of this nocturnal creature across different cultures. The poet’s attitude towards bats is one of disdain and disgust, vividly portrayed through his descriptive language and contrasting imagery.
The poem opens with a serene depiction of the evening in Italy, where the poet sits on a terrace, observing the tranquil scenery around the Ponte Vecchio bridge and the Arno River. This peaceful setting soon shifts as the poet notices “things are flying” in the evening sky. Initially, the poet describes the swallows with admiration, noting their graceful and acrobatic flight patterns. The swallows are seen as symbols of hope and fulfillment, especially for sailors who view their appearance as a sign of nearing their destination. This positive depiction of swallows sets the stage for a stark contrast when the poet turns his attention to bats.
As the night falls, the swallows give way to bats, marking a significant shift in the poem’s tone. The poet’s language becomes harsh and critical as he describes the bats’ erratic and unsettling movements. The bats are portrayed as “wildly vindictive” and their flight is likened to the erratic flapping of “bits of umbrella.” This imagery evokes a sense of chaos and malevolence, reflecting the poet’s deep dislike for these creatures. The bats’ presence in the night sky causes the poet unease, associating them with darkness, bad luck, and misfortune.
The poet’s disdain for bats is further emphasized through vivid and repulsive descriptions. He describes how bats “hang themselves up like an old rag to sleep,” painting a grotesque image of these creatures suspended in the air like “disgusting old rags.” This comparison to rags underscores the poet’s perception of bats as dirty and undesirable. The bat’s nocturnal nature, flying madly overhead and swooping through the night, adds to the poet’s sense of repulsion and discomfort.
In contrast to his own negative view, the poet acknowledges that bats are seen differently in other cultures. Specifically, in China, bats are considered symbols of happiness and good luck, even being consumed as food. This cultural difference highlights the subjective nature of perceptions and the idea that “one man’s meat is another man’s poison.” Despite this acknowledgment, the poet firmly asserts his own stance with the declaration “Not for me,” indicating that he cannot reconcile his disdain for bats with their positive symbolism in other cultures.



D.H. Lawrence examines the poet’s ingrained dislike of bats while pointing out the disparities in cultural perspectives toward this nocturnal animal. Through his use of contrasted imagery and detailed language, the poet effectively conveys his scorn and loathing towards bats.
The poem begins with a calm description of an evening in Italy, with the author sitting on a patio and taking in the peace and quiet around the Arno River and the Ponte Vecchio bridge. The serene scene quickly changes as the poet observes that “things are flying” in the night sky. The poet begins by praising the swallows and pointing out their elegant and acrobatic flying patterns. Particularly for sailors who regard the swallows’ arrival as an indication that they are getting close to their objective, the birds are thought of as symbols of fulfillment and optimism. The poet’s uplifting portrayal of swallows prepares the reader for a startling contrast when he discusses bats.
The poem’s tone significantly changes as the swallows give way to bats as night falls. When describing the unpredictable and uncomfortable motions of the bats, the poet’s tone turns harsh and caustic. It is said that the bats are “wildly vindictive” and that they flap their wings erratically like “bits of umbrella.” The poet’s intense distaste for these animals is reflected in the imagery, which conjures up images of pandemonium and malevolence. The poet feels uneasy about the bats’ presence in the night sky because he associates them with disaster, ill luck, and gloom.
Vivid and disgusting descriptions further highlight the poet’s contempt for bats. He paints a macabre picture of bats hanging in the air like “disgusting old rags,” describing how they “hang themselves up like an old rag to sleep.” The poet’s opinion of bats as unclean and undesired is further supported by this analogy to rags. The nocturnal behavior of the bat—swooping through the night and flying erratically overhead—adds to the poet’s feelings of discomfort and repulsiveness.
The poet admits that other civilizations have different perspectives on bats than his own pessimistic one. More specifically, bats are eaten in China, where they are revered as cuisine and seen as lucky charms. This cultural disparity emphasizes how perceptions are arbitrary and how “one man’s meat is another man’s poison.” Even with this acknowledgement, the poet makes a strong statement about his personal position by saying, “Not for me,” suggesting that he finds it impossible to reconcile his dislike of bats with their positive symbolic meaning in other cultures.




In “The Journey of the Magi,” the poet T.S. Eliot portrays the suffering of the travellers as a necessary part of their spiritual journey. The poem describes the harsh winter conditions that the Magi face as they travel to Bethlehem, including “the worst time of year for a journey, and such a long journey.”
-The poet also mentions the “camels galled, sore-footed, refractory” and the “cities hostile and the towns unfriendly” that the Magi encounter on their journey.
-These descriptions suggest that the Magi are facing numerous obstacles and challenges that make their journey difficult and painful.
-However, the suffering of the Magi is not portrayed as a punishment or a curse, but rather as a transformative experience.
-The poem suggests that the Magi’s suffering is necessary for them to reach their spiritual destination and experience the birth of Christ.
-The poet writes, “We returned to our places, these Kingdoms, / But no longer at ease here, in the old dispensation.” This suggests that the Magi’s journey has changed them, and they can no longer go back to their old way of life. Overall, the poem portrays the suffering of the Magi as a necessary part of their spiritual journey and a transformative experience that leads to a deeper understanding of the divine.


Good luck

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